As far as I understand based on the materials I have been exposed to, a term "comfort women" has been grossly misinterpreted as "the prostitution forced by the Imperial Japanese Forces" and/or "the women drafted to work as prostitutes by the Imperial Japanese Forces".
The testimonial statement on "comfort women" http://bit.ly/6xcsFR was made by Mr. Hiroo Onoda, in which he clearly describes his "observation of comfort women as an outsider". At the age of 17, he was assigned as an expatriate staff at a private trading company in Hankou 漢口 (now called Wuhan 武漢) situated in the middle reaches of Yangtze River and lived in the area occupied by the Japanese forces. He stayed there as an employee of the Japanese trading company for three years and a half.
Mr. Hiroo Onoda points out in his testimonial statement titled "Observation of Comfort Women as an Outsider" that "comfort women" were prostitutes on commercial basis, as evidenced in the amount of money flowing into brothels.
He further states; Although not only those officers and soldiers dispatched overseas but also every Japanese civilian knew a term "Juugun kanngo fu". However, none of us never heard nor used a term "Juugun ian fu" at all It must have been later coined to denigrate
- A term "従軍看護婦" pronounced "Jugun kan go fu", literally meaning "nurses drafted to work at the military" as they are called "war nurses" in English.
- A term "従軍慰安婦" pronounced "Jugun ian fu", literally meaning "comfort women drafted to work at the military"
War Nurses serving the Great Imperial Japanese Forces
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe, Professor Emeritus, Sophia University ( http://bit.ly/eJPYQn ) discusses "Who's stirring up anti-Japan sentiments in Japan" in the article I posted on February 10, 2011.
Now he discusses "Confute Fabrication of Comfort Women!" with Ms.Reiko Ito, a Japanese politician, ex-member of Kamakura City Assembly, Chairwoman of Women Club for Shaping up Japan ( http://bit.ly/fI2Vkh )
The first video footage of Confute Fabrication of Comfort Women!(9 min. 50 sec.)
The second video footage of Confute Fabrication of Comfort Women! (7 min. 32 sec.)
-the Beginning of the First Footage-
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: I believe that we find every fabricated issue Japan has currently been faced with originates from Tokyo Trials only by which Japan was determined to be an evil state. However, the Tokyo Trials were held, not based on any laws at all but only based on a charter produced by General MacArthur. However, MacArthur himself publicly stated in U.S. You know what he said. don't you? He said "Their purpose, therefore, in going to war was largely dictated by security." 1
Ms.Reiko Ito: Sure, I remember what you have already told me. He stated it in public.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: Media in Japan have long kept it undisclosed to the public.
Ms.Reiko Ito: You are right about it.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: If this one sentence were known, the whole thing would collapse. What's great about Mr. Yamada, Chief of Suginami ku (ward office) is that in reply to the question raised in assembly over whether the last war was justifiable or not, he quoted MacArthur as saying "Their purpose, therefore, in going to war was largely dictated by security.", thereby calming down the opposition parties. However, this kind of question is rarely raised in the local assemblies.
Ms.Reiko Ito: That one sentence will do it.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: We will have to teach every Japanese national about it.
Ms.Reiko Ito: You have written many papers, articles, books, etc., however, that one sentence has not been widely known among the Japanese people. I just don't see why. I figure it is because media does not want to get it known among the general public.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: Whenever you go for discussion on the Pacific War, you should remember just one sentence and use it whenever necessary.
Ms.Reiko Ito: The United States accepted the fact that Japan went to war for its security. Didn't it. This is something we should say. What Tokyo Trials did completely contradicts his statement.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: If Tokyo Trials were based on international laws and presided over by the judges selected from neutral states but not among the countries that participated in the Pacific War, Japan would have to accept its judgements.
Ms.Reiko Ito: I just can't believe that those trials were just biased and held just one-sided.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: Those trials sound like Boryoku dan (Yakuza group) handing down death sentences to those who lost a gangster battle.
Ms.Reiko Ito: Exactly.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: There was no legal basis at all.
Ms.Reiko Ito: I regret to say that we still have some people who believe in Tokyo Trials although more than 60 years have passed since the end of the Pacific War.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: You know why we still have those people? Once they accept it as being true, they will have to deny what they have been saying for many years. They have been paid for criticizing Japan. They are those working in news media, journalists, writers, scholars, teachers, etc. There are many. They just can't cancel what they have said. However, we will have to keep working on it.
Ms.Reiko Ito: At least media in Japan must educate the public about it although those professionals may find it difficult to accept it as you said.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: In fact, those media still can't accept it because senior staffs are still there working at media. For decades, they have kept earning money by criticizing Japan. I wonder how long they will keep deceiving the general public. However, I think gradual exposure of their lies has been in progress. I expect that they will suddenly collapse some time soon.
Ms.Reiko Ito: I think so, too.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: Mr. Kan asked PM Mr. Abe "What do you think of your grandfather who was a minister during the Pacific War?"
Ms.Reiko Ito: Yes, he certainly did.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: Then, PM Mr. Abe said "he feels responsible-------." but I think he should have added some more words to his answer. He should have said like "I am proud of my grandfather's important role in the Pacific War as it was inevitably fought for our security. Even MacArthur who held Tokyo Trials clearly and publicly stated "Their purpose, therefore, in going to war was largely dictated by security."
Ms.Reiko Ito: Yes, he should have said so. Then, Mr. Kan must have been so shocked to know it.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: What has been bothering me now is that the United States is focused on "comfort women" and considers Mr. Abe as a nationalist because he denied it. Everybody knows it is just a fabrication. Even U.S. Ambassador to Japan started to suggest that Japan should not deny it. 2
Ms.Reiko Ito said: U.S. Ambassador to Japan seems to be undependable at all.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: Japan should explain it well to the US Ambassador based on the written document. Chairman Mr.Yōhei Kōno should apologize for what he has mistakenly stated on "comfort women". However, he still keeps sitting at the Chairman's chair and he seems so indifferent to all the troubles he has caused. The whole world may interpret Mr. Kouno still sitting at the Chairman's seat as the Japan's acceptance of accusations. The public should stage demonstrations against him, demanding him to apologize for his false statement. We should start a nationwide campaign against him, making him publicly apologize. He has caused so much trouble to Japan and has damaged Japan's image so much.
Ms.Reiko Ito: His responsibility is grave. I was strongly opposed to the Murayama Danwa (talk) but it was made public. It is just a talk, nothing more than that.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: Moreover, what's outrageous about U.S. is that it has ignored a very basic understanding. That is, once we concluded a peace treaty, U.S. should not have brought up publicly any issues we discussed before the peace treaty was signed. I don't mind scholars carrying out any studies and discussing those issues. But U.S. Congress should not have done so.
Ms.Reiko Ito: U.S. has been doing anything illegal as it wishes.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: I consider it as a grave violation of a very basic understanding behind "Peace Treaty" that U.S. has brought up an issue of "comfort women" once again. U.S. Congress should be blamed for the act of bringing up "comfort women". I understand their feelings in a sense that what U.S. did to Japan could be worse than what Adolf Hitler did to the Jews. Say, for example, a great number of people was murdered at Auschwitz. However, we should remember that by Tokyo air raid, more than 100,000 innocent civilians were burned to death just in one night. How many months do you think it took the Nazi Germany to burn more than 100,000 Jews at Auschwitz? I would say it took about a year. But U.S. burned that many people just in one night. Not only Tokyo but also more than 60 cities, including Hiroshima and Nagasaki where nuclear bombs were dropped.
Ms.Reiko Ito: Outrageous! What U.S. did is a clear violation of international laws.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: The Government of Japan has not mentioned a word about it because Japan respects "Peace Treaty" concluded in the past. I think, perhaps, that by fabricating such a thing like "comfort women", U.S. has been trying to mitigate its own guilty conscience. And, the Chinese Americans are bad. Not only them but also some crooked Japanese Americans there. This is the way everything has been. I don't see why we shouldn't point it out to U.S. If such an issue as "comfort women" has to be discussed, I think it should be discussed among the scholars.
Regarding the Dutch women coerced into prostitution in Indonesia, the Government of Japan already punished those involved with the incident as reported by The Sankei Shinbun. However, they just ignored this fact and brought it up again.
The Government of Japan was well-disciplined in those days. Of course, we had some minor incidents involving some soldiers who misbehaved in such a large-scale battle. I remember that a lot of American soldiers misbehaved in Japan after they came over here.
I really think that the way Japan handles "comfort women" issue seems weak and poor. We should be proving their accusations invalid to them whenever necessary.
Ms.Reiko Ito: That's right. I don't see any strong intention among those working for the Government of Japan to prove it to be false.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: Because prostitution was legal in Japan in those days, an idea of "comfort women" came up to prevent the Japanese soldiers from getting involved with the local ladies, through which venereal diseases might have been communicable. Say, for example, the owners of brothels in China were Chinese. On the other hand, U.S. came into Japan without thinking a bit about this idea of establishing the system, by which raping of the Japanese ladies would have been prevented. U.S. just let its soldiers rape the Japanese ladies as much as they wanted. Not only raping but U.S. ordered Japan to establish something similar to "Yoshiwara", meaning an area designated to provide sexual services for them. We have a clear evidence that they ordered Japan to do so. We should just tell U.S. to remember and think about what U.S. did in Japan. Don't push your misbehaviour aside! Tell the Americans to cool your heads and think well which nation is humanitarian-oriented.
-the End of the First Footage-
-the Beginning of the Second Footage-
Ms.Reiko Ito: That's right. What the Japanese military was concerned about and possibly involved with "comfort women" was strictly limited to the prevention of "venereal diseases". However, U.S. has focused on it and has intentionally expanded it to the extent that the Japanese military was fully involved with "comfort women".
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: Moreover, what the Japanese military was most afraid of was for the Japanese soldiers to get involved with the local ladies. On the other hand, U.S. didn't care about it.
Mr. Onoda stated that 330,000 Japanese soldiers stationed in 漢口 Hankou or Hànkǒu in those days and spent every month one third of their monthly salaries on satisfying their sexual desire by sleeping with prostitutes which amounted to be JPN 1,320,000 equivalent to 44 Zero Fighters. This is a historical fact no one can deny. Apart from an argument over whether act of war is good or bad, those nations sending many soldiers overseas must be considerate to the young and active soldiers. 3
Ms.Reiko Ito: That's right. I am somehow frustrated because Japan has not so far successfully managed to confute "comfort women" issue.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: They should study how to logically organize their thinking when it comes to this kind of issue.
Ms.Reiko Ito: Expressing apologies doesn't solve any problems at all. It simply gives them a wrong impression that we accept any claims over "comfort women" issue.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: We must confute it.
Ms.Reiko Ito: That's right. We really have to. PM Mr. Abe should handle it with much more enthusiasm and should harshly protest against U.S.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: Even regarding "dropping of nuclear bombs", U.S. still claims that US dropped nuclear bombs to shorten the war. US has just kept saying it without scruple.
Ms.Reiko Ito: Yes, without scruple.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: What U.S. is still saying is that you can do anything if it is to shorten the war. Once I told Mr. (inaudible) "We could have used chemical weapons such as poisonous gases to shorten the war.", he paused and replied "I've never thought of it." When I think of which one is better, nukes or poisonous gases, they are same as long as your purpose is to kill the innocent civilians without scruple.
However, this is not something the Government of Japan should say but somebody will have to say to those criticizing Japan. At least Public Diplomacy Department, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs should keep eye on what other nations say about Japan. Or, the Ministry should establish some organization to deal with this kind of matters. Just like the Jewish people established Simon Wiesenthal Center, we should take actions immediately after somebody criticizes Japan. I remember a case of a Japanese magazine called "Marco Polo" which denied "gas chamber" used by the Nazi Germany to murder a large number of the Jewish people, which Simon Wiesenthal Center immediately noticed and then pressurized the major companies not to advertise on the magazine. "Marco Polo" was later discontinued. Its editor was fired. I think this is a bit too much but we should respect their spirit behind. We should learn from the Jewish people and establish an organ that will apply pressures on anybody who criticizes Japan without any reasonable basis at all.
Ms.Reiko Ito: Diplomacy is like fighting in a battleground. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is carefree and so relaxed because Japan is surrounded by seas but not directly bordered with foreign states at all.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: U.S. recently announced production of a movie titled "Rape of Nanking" over which Mr. Mizushima, President of Sakura Channel immediately stated that we regard their act as a declaration of intelligence war against us. I truly think his analysis has been quite right.
Ms.Reiko Ito: I am so impressed by his words. I really think he is right about it.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: Every word he said is right.
Ms.Reiko ItoThis is a kind of mentality we should have even during peace time.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: I really wonder if we have any organization to deal with this intelligence war. I was surprised to know that U.S. Ambassador to Japan knew nothing about "comfort women". I wonder if there are any Japanese friendly and privately associated with U.S. Ambassador. They should approach him and frankly discuss any issues between Japan and U.S. not in an official manner, telling him that the articles written by the New York Times and the Washington Post based on the misleading statement made by Mr. Kouno were found to be invalid.
Ms.Reiko Ito: Such activities may not be exactly lobbying but something similar to it are really needed.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: we had the people so skilled in such an area up until the end of Japan-Russia war because there was no established way to boost careers at all. However, after the war was over, the whole system was well established, thereby making everyone to demonstrate their capacity by scoring high on the written exams. The written exams prevalent in Japan often require them to write exactly what the examiners expect. Only those skilled in satisfying the examiners have become higher up. This might be a reason that explains why the people don't react to any critics of Japan. At least our politicians should instruct those administrative officials to deal with those critics.
Ms.Reiko Ito: Those elected to politically work at the National Diet should study much harder, assuming responsibilities for our national interests.
Dr. Shoichi Watanabe: As those administrative staff are all elites, just tell them to do the work. They will do it because they are patriotic. They are not happy about being pushed around by U.S. , so that Minister of Foreign Affairs should tell them to act against U.S. and not to worry about the final responsibilities.
Ms.Reiko Ito: After all, we must have good qualified politicians. That's all we need now.
-the End of the Second Footage-
1. Testimony of Douglas MacArthur-Strategy Against Japan In World War II
Strategy against Japan in world war II MILITARY SITUATION IN THE FAR EAST p55,
the Armed Services and Foreign Relations Committees of the United States Senate – 82nd Congress, Thursday May 3, 1951
Senator Hickenlooper-Question No.5: Isn't your proposal for sea and air blockade of Red China the same strategy by which Americans achieved victory over the Japanese in the Pacific?
General MacArthur-Yes, sir. In the Pacific, we bypassed them. We closed in. You must understand that Japan had an enormous population of nearly 80 million people, crowded into 4 islands. It was about half a farm population. The other half was engaged in industry.
Potentially the labor pool in Japan, in both quantity and quality, is as good as anything that I have ever known. Some place down the line they have discovered what you might call the dignity of labor, that men are happier when when they are working and constructing than when they are idling.
This enormous capacity for work meant that they had to have something to work on. They built the factories, they had the labor, but they didn't have the basic materials. There is practically nothing indigenous to Japan except the silkworm. They lack cotton, they lack wool, they lack petroleum products, they lack tin, they lack rubber, they lack a great many other things, all which was in the Asiatic basin. They feared that if those supplies were cut off, there would be 10 to 12 million people unoccupied in Japan. Their purpose, therefore, in going to war was largely dictated by security.
2. Japan: Comfort Women Were "Raped"-US Ambassador
Japan - U.S. Ambassador to Japan J. Thomas Schieffer described comfort women as the victims of rape by the Japanese military during World War II, according to the New York Times on Saturday.
The U.S. daily reported that the ambassador in a meeting with reporters on Friday “described as ‘credible witnesses’ former comfort women who recently testified in Congress about being coerced into prostitution by the Japanese authorities.” He was also cited as saying, “I take the word of the women that testified."
“I think they were coerced to engage in prostitution. That means that they were raped by the Japanese military at that point in time,” Schieffer said. “I think that happened, and I think it was a regrettable, terrible thing that it happened. I think the events speak for themselves."
NYT also reported that Schieffer “hoped that the Japanese government ‘would not back away’ from a 1993 statement that acknowledged and apologized for Japan’s brutal mistreatment of the comfort women.”
According to the NYT, Japan’s official denial that the Japanese military directly forced women into sexual slavery during World War II has caused a furor not only in Asia but also in the U.S.
Meanwhile, Dutch Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende said he was “unpleasantly surprised” to hear of the Japanese cabinet’s statement that there was no evidence that Japan directly forced women to serve as sex slaves. The Dutch minister said that he has instructed his foreign minister to summon the Japanese
Ambassador to explain Japan’s position. Dutch women living in the Dutch colony of Indonesia were taken by the Japanese military to serve as comfort women during the war.
3. Mr. Hiroo Onoda, Second Lieutenant and Intelligence Officer, Great Imperial Japanese Army大日本帝国陸軍
Mr. Hiroo Onoda as a recruit Mr. Hiroo Onoda as a Japan's national "Hero"
On December, 1944, Mr. Hiroo Onoda was given an order from Lieutenant general Mr. Shizuo Yokoyama, which says "You are not allowed to commit a suicidal attack. Keep on fighting for three years or four years until I come back here. Keep on fighting as long as you have a soldier left to fight for you. Eat coconuts and keep on fighting with your soldiers. I repeat you are not allowed to commit a suicidal attack."
As ordered, Second Lieutenant Mr. Hiroo Onoda had kept on fighting with his soldiers until he was given an order by Major Mr. Yoshimi Taniguchi on behalf of General Mr. Tomoyuki Yamashita on March 9, 1974 to cease fighting and to contact either U.S. forces or Philippines forces and to follow their instructions.
1. I try to be accurate when translating all the discourses I came across in preparing for this presentation.
2. I try to be concise when translating all the discourses I came across in preparing for this presentation.
3. Whatever discourses I translate will remain tentative until I get satisfied with their accuracy.
4. I reserve the right to decide which discourses I choose for this presentation.